An overview of colors on the web¶
Colors on the web are typically specified in the sRGB color space, where each color is made up of a red component, a green component and a blue component. This maps to the red, green and blue components of the pixels on a computer display, and to the three sets of cone cells in the human eye, which respond to (roughly) the wavelengths of light associated with red, green and blue.
On the web, sRGB colors are specified in formats which describe the color as a 24-bit integer, where the first 8 bits provide the red value, the second 8 bits the green value and the final 8 bits the blue value. This gives a total space of 256 × 256 × 256 or 16,777,216 unique colors, though due to differences in display technology not all of these colors may be clearly distinguishable on any given physical display.
HTML 4 defined two ways to specify sRGB colors:
- The character # followed by three pairs of hexadecimal digits, specifying values for red, green and blue components in that order; for example, #0099cc.
- A set of predefined color names which correspond to specific hexadecimal values; for example, blue. HTML 4 defines sixteen such colors.
In its description of color units, CSS1 added three new ways to specify sRGB colors:
- The character # followed by three hexadecimal digits, which is expanded into three hexadecimal pairs by repeating each digit; thus #09c is equivalent to #0099cc.
- The string rgb, followed by parentheses, between which are three base-10 integers in the range 0..255, which are taken to be the values of the red, green and blue components in that order; for example, rgb(0, 153, 204).
- The same as above, except using percentages instead of numeric values; for example, rgb(0%, 60%, 80%).
CSS1 also suggested a set of sixteen color names. These names were identical to the set defined in HTML 4, but CSS1 did not provide definitions of their values and stated that they were taken from “the Windows VGA palette”.
In its section on colors, CSS2 allowed the same methods of specifying colors as CSS1, and defined and provided values for sixteen named colors, identical to the set found in HTML 4.
CSS2 also specified a list of names of system colors. These had no fixed color values, but would take on values from the operating system or other user interface, and allowed elements to be styled using the same colors as the surrounding user interface. These names are deprecated as of CSS3.
The CSS2.1 revision did not add any new methods of specifying sRGB colors, but did define one additional named color: orange.
The CSS3 color module adds one new way to specify colors:
- A hue-saturation-lightness triplet (HSL), using the construct hsl().
CSS3 also adds support for variable opacity of colors, by allowing the specification of alpha-channel information through the rgba() and hsla() constructs. These are used similarly to the rgb() and hsl() constructs, except a fourth value is supplied indicating the level of opacity from 0.0 (completely transparent) to 1.0 (completely opaque). Though not technically a color, the keyword transparent is also made available in lieu of a color value, and corresponds to rgba(0,0,0,0).
CSS3 also defines a new set of 147 color names. This set is taken directly from the named colors defined for SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) markup, and is a superset of the named colors defined in CSS2.1.
HTML5 exists in two forms: a living document maintained by WHATWG, and a W3C Recommendation. The two HTML5 documents, as of this writing, share a common definition of color values and parsing, and formalize the parsing and serialization of colors according to prior standards and real-world implementations in web browsers.
HTML5 does not introduce any new methods of specifying colors, but does simplify the description of colors and introduce useful terminology.
- A set of three 8-bit numbers representing the red, blue and green components of an sRGB color is termed a “simple color”.
- A seven-character string which begins with the character #, followed by six ASCII hex digits (i.e., A-Fa-f0-9), representing the red, green and blue components of an sRGB color, is a “valid simple color”.
- A valid simple color expressed with only lowercase ASCII hex digits (i.e., a-f0-9) is a “valid lowercase simple color”.
HTML5 provides three algorithms related to colors:
- An algorithm for parsing simple color values, which works on any string that is a valid simple color as defined above.
- An algorithm for serializing simple color values, which will always produce a valid lowercase simple color.
- A legacy color-parsing algorithm, which will yield a simple color from a variety of inputs, including inputs which are valid simple colors, inputs which are valid for formats from other standards, and certain types of “junk” inputs which were common in real-world documents.
The HTML5 legacy parsing algorithm does not support the non-color keyword transparent from CSS3 and will produce an error for that input. It also does not recognize the CSS2 “system color” keywords; it will convert each such keyword to a simple color, consistently, but in a way which does not follow CSS2’s definitions of these keywords (which itself was system- and configuration-dependent).
The implementations in this module are based on the definitions and algorithms of the W3C HTML5 Recommendation’s section on colors.
What this module supports¶
The webcolors module supports the following methods of specifying sRGB colors, and conversions between them:
- Six-digit hexadecimal
- Three-digit hexadecimal
- Integer rgb() triplet
- Percentage rgb() triplet
- The defined named colors of HTML 4, CSS2, CSS2.1, and CSS3
The webcolors module does not support:
- The CSS1 named colors, which did not have defined values
- The CSS2 system colors, which did not have fixed values
- The transparent keyword, which denotes an effective lack of color
- Opacity/alpha-channel information specified via the rgba() construct
- Colors specified in the HSL color space, via hsl() or hsla() constructs
If you need to convert between sRGB-specified colors and HSL-specified
colors, or colors specified via other means, consult the
colorsys module in the Python standard library, which can
perform conversions amongst several common color systems.